Emancipation: the building of humanity

Bernardo Bianchi


This research aims at building a theoretical framework, by which the concept of emancipation could be re-founded. Through the question of anthropogenesis, one of Marx’s constantly neglected concepts can be reconsidered: the concept of Selbstbetätigung (self-activation). The Manuscripts of 1844 provide the image of the diminution of the power to act that cannot be understood under the formula of the exteriorization of the subject in objects, as suggested by the model of the philosophy of alienation, when it postulates the ideal of transparence against opacity. Instead of conceiving the problem of emancipation as a process of subjectivation (the becoming-human of the world), the Selbstbetätigung deals with the becoming-world of man. In this sense, the process of humanization takes place amid a plane of immanence, from which we could develop the idea of a practical transformation of the world as it is. Therefore, it can be said that in this statement there is an inversion of the traditional analysis of the imprisonment of the human power under the capitalist mode of production. Instead of condemning the objectivation of men as well as the objectivation of the social world, we can derive from Marx a problematic that culminates in the recrimination of the becoming-subject of men, in accordance with the process that involves the loss of their own objectivity. I would like to emphasize that men are not only modified by the circumstances, but that it is from the moment that they modify their own circumstances, in accordance with the expression of their own power to act, that men modify themselves. In that sense, based on Franck Fischbach (FISCHBACH, F., Philosophies de Marx, p. 41.), we could add that this position entails a double problem. On the one hand, it demonstrates that men modify themselves as they modify their circumstances. On the other hand, the change of the circumstances should, therefore, be regarded as inseparable from the change of men themselves. In these terms, as a revolutionary practice, the emancipation is the activity that unifies the change of the circumstances to the change of men.

Emancipation - Marxism - Spinozism - Aleatory Materialism