"Together with Rosa Luxemburg for Peace, Social Justice, and Revolution: The Female German Spartacus Militants Clara Zetkin, Kaete Duncker, Berta Thalheimer, Fanny Jezierska, and Mathilde Jacob (1914 - 1918) – comparison of her characters"

Ottokar Luban


In a male dominated political scene of the Imperial Gemany there were not only Luxemburg and Zetkin but several more left socialist women who played a crucial role for the revolutionary labor movement in Germany during World War I. Some of them even grew to leaders of the "Spartacus Group". Yet their self understanding in the role of women as mainly helpers hindered them - with the exception of Luxemburg and Zetkin - to keep a leading position for a longer time.
by Ottokar Luban (International Rosa Luxemburg Society) oluban@gmx.de

gender studies - German Communism - resistance - Social Democracy